Mold Information

  • Potential health effects and symptoms associated with mold exposures include allergic reactions, asthma, and other respiratory complaints.
  • There is no practical way to eliminate all mold spores in the indoor environment; the way to control indoor mold growth is to control moisture
    entry.
  • If mold is a problem in your home or school, eliminate sources of moisture and clean the mold with a recommended cleaner.
  • Suppress the source of the water intrusion or leak.
  • Control the indoor humidity (to 30-60%) by venting bathrooms, dryers, and other moisture-generating sources to the outside.
  • Clean and dry any damp or wet building materials and furnishings within 24-48 hours to prevent mold growth.
  • Clean mold off hard surfaces with water and detergent, and dry completely. Absorbent materials such as ceiling tiles, that are moldy, may need
    to be replaced.
  • Reduce the potential for condensation on cold surfaces (i.e., windows, piping, exterior walls, roof, or floors) by adding insulation.
  • In areas where there is a perpetual moisture problem, do not install carpeting (i.e., by drinking fountains, by classroom sinks, or on
    concrete floors with leaks or frequent condensation).
  • Mold can be found almost anywhere; it can grow on virtually any substance where moisture is present.

If you have IAQ and mold issues in your school, you should get a copy of the IAQ Tools for Schools Kit. Mold is covered in the IAQ Coordinator’s Guide under http://www.epa.gov/iaq/schools/tfs/guideh.html Appendix H – Mold and Moisture.

A Glossary of Interpreting Mold Data

There are no published regulatory standards to interpret mold results or assess health risks related to mold exposure. Even though fungi and
bacteria have been linked to various health problems, sensitivity varies from person to person. Therefore it is impossible to reach a
suitable conclusion for those exposed to mold.

Mold is found everywhere moisture and air are present. Ordinarily, the most severe mold species are Stachybotrys, Cladosporium, and
Fusarium
because they produce toxins. Among such species, Stachybotrys (black mold) is the worst. Once discovered,
it needs to be remediated (abated).

Alternaria, Aspergillus, Basidiospores, Curvularia, Epicoccum, and Penicillium form the next group to be watched closely for
people with compromised immune system or with allergies. The indoor concentration of these spores will affect residents depending on their
health factors.

Comparing outside and inside readings, when spore counts outside are greater than inside, one can assume that spores could be migrating from
outside. If inside spore count readings are greater than outside, then mold could be growing inside.

Relative humidity (RH) is an indication of the amount of water in the room. The American National Standards Institute
(ANSI) and the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) developed ANSI/ASHRAE Standard 55-2004,
“Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human Occupancy”. Since prolonged humidity levels above 60% allow molds, spores, and fungi to propagate
(grow), ANSI/ASHRAE recommends that indoor relative humidity (RH) levels not exceed 60%. ASHRAE states that “Relative Humidity in habitable
spaces preferably should be maintained between 30% and 60% to minimize growth of allergenic or pathogenic organisms”.

In conclusion, measurements of indoor air quality parameters are indicators of environmental conditions, at a specific moment in time, and
these often change rapidly.

“Most molds, even if you can smell them, are not harmful,” says the UC Berkley Wellness Letter. However, each complaint needs to be
handled separately, considering each employee experiencing upper respiratory ailments and chemical sensitivities with great care and caution.

Limited Glossary of Molds
Alternaria
In decaying wood, plants, food, soil, and outdoor air. Found in house dust, carpet, damp area on window
frames and where condensation occurs indoors. Chief fungal cause of hay fever. Important allergen. Phaeohyphomycosis (causing
cystic granulomas in the skin and subcutaneous tissue), nasal lesions, nail infections; the majority of infections reported from
persons with underlying disease or in those taking immunosuppressive drugs. In immunocompetent patients, Alternaria colonizes the
paranasal sinuses, leading to chronic hypertrophic sinusitis.
Ascospores
Saprophytes and plant pathogens. Found everywhere in nature. Dependent on genus and species, but the vast
majority does not cause disease.
Aspergillus
Found indoors in water-damaged buildings. Most people are immune to it. Possible lung infection for people
with lung disease.
Basidiospores
Bipolaris/Drechslera Group: Found in plant debris, soil. Plant pathogens of numerous plants, particularly
grasses. Occasionally a cause of phaeohyphomycosis, including keratitis, sinusitis, and osteomyelitis. These infections usually occur
in immunocompromised persons, although infections also occur in normal hosts. One case of brain abscess reported in an
immunocompromised patient.
Bipolaris/Drechslera Group
Bipolaris species are common, and are most closely related to Drechslera and Exserohilum.
Chaetomium
Found in soil, seeds, cellulose substrates, dung, woody and straw materials. Uncommon agent of onychomycosis
(nail infection).
Cladosporium
Frequently found outdoor. Found indoor in water-damaged buildings. Only occasionally associated with
diseases in humans (Pulmonary infections, sinusitis, edema, keratitis, onychomycosis).
Curvularia
May cause infection for people with compromised immune system. (cerebral abscess, endocarditis, mycetoma,
ocular keratitis, onychomycosis, pneumonia, sinusitis)
Epicoccum
Found in plant debris, soil. Secondary invader of damaged plant tissue. Can grow in conditions of low
humidity, is a known allergen that can be isolated from human skin and sputum.
Fusarium
Common on food. Mycotoxin producers.
Other Brown
Generic category which is not classifiable and insignificant contributable to heath issues.
Penicillium
Indoor air samples, on dust, carpet, or wall paper. Human pathogenic species are rare. May cause diseases
for people with compromised immune system.
Smuts, Periconia, Myxomycetes
Found on cereal crops, grasses, weeds, other fungi, and on other flowering plants. No reports of human
infection by the plant parasitic forms.

Last updated: 8/30/2016

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